Returns the number 'e' - the constant base of the natural logarithm, approximately equal to 2.71828.

  • Returned Output: Numeric
  • Library: PQL \ Granular \ Math
  • Version: 2023.00.000
  • Compatibility: Pyramid Query Language (PQL) data sources


  • The function returns a value, rather than performing an operation on a given column. The value can then be used to drive derivative logic. The various Identity values are often used to secure data based on the current end user or create personalized values for the end user.
  • For details on how to employ and use this function see the custom column overview.
Different Function types
  • This function is similar to the PQL common functions of the same name. However, it operates on a column directly at the grain.
  • As a granular function, it is used in the base SQL query itself.


This example returns a column with the "e" value.


You can see the effect from this example snippet in column #4.